If the introduction of the piece discusses any present-day issues, you may use present tense, such as students today are reading in addition, apa style also recommends the use of present tense in the conclusions section of a study.
Research papers written in apa style include four major sections these sections include: title page apa style title pages are centered horizontally and vertically it consists of the title of your paper, your name and institution for dissertations, it should also include the degree you are submitting the dissertation for, the month and the year. This is a guide to submitting your dissertation or doctoral project for the formatting check and final copy skip to main content verb tense apa style papers should be written in past or present perfect tense: the 6th edition of publication manual of the american psychological association was created by the american.
Apa style elements apa formatting is a set of rules and guidelines for styling your paper and citing your sources for an overview of basic apa formatting visit our introduction to apa page.
Table of contentsabstract or summaryintroductiontheoretical frameworkliterature reviewmethods and resultsconclusions or discussionlimitationsrecommendations and implicationsdifferent sections of academic papers (theses, dissertations and essays) tend to use different tenses the following is a breakdown of these tendencies by section. And final dissertation (except for verb tense in all three chapters), the following discussion of these chapters pertains to both chapter titles and suggested section headings appear as they would in an actual proposal/dissertation. The past tense is mainly used to report the findings while the present tense is used to interpret the results or refer to tables and figures which tense should be used in the results and discussion section of a paper. Consult an apa style guide frequently, especially sections on citing research starting with simple outlines that go through review and revisions are a good way to prevent small mistakes in apa style, says cone also recognize that dissertations require both past and present tense, says bikos.
The apa manual provides suggestions on which verb tense is appropriate for various sections of a thesis, major project, or journal article please see below: past tense (eg, smith showed ) (american psychological association, 2010, p 65-66) or present perfect tense (eg, researchers have shown ) for the literature review (p. Different sections of academic papers (theses, dissertations and essays) tend to use different tenses the following is a breakdown of these tendencies by section the following is a breakdown of these tendencies by section.
Verb tenses most common verb tenses in academic writing apa style guidelines on verb tense apa calls for consistency and accuracy in verb tense usage (see apa 306) in other words, avoid unnecessary shifts in verb tense within a paragraph or in adjacent paragraphs to help ensure smooth expression.